Late December 2015 our chapter Voicing Discontent in South Korea. Origins and Channels of Online Civic Movements by Se Jung Park and myself was published in The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics and edited by Axel Bruns, Gunn Enli, Eli Skogerbø, Anders Olof Larsson, and Christian Christensen. The edited book consists of a large and diverse collection on social media and politics.
Our chapter consists of three sections. The first section “South Korea’s Path to Wealth and Democracy” is a brief look into South Korea’s recent history of developing into a democracy and economic prosperity driven by Korea’s technology industry (cf. Samsung, LG). The second section focuses on the distinct Korean Web culture and its fast Internet infrastructure. The third section focuses on the sociopolitical relations in South Korea’s collectivist culture. Using World Values Survey data we compare South Korea to other countries, in terms of confidence in political institutions such as parliament and government, civil services, and political parties. In the following section three cases on social movements and social media are presented: Candlelight protests, citizen journalism: OhmyNews, and Gangjeong Movement. The subsequent section focuses on Internet regulation and Election Laws in South Korea, followed by the conclusion.
A big thank you to the editors for inviting to contribute and a special big thank you to Nicki Hall, the project coördinator, for managing this project. More information about the book can be found on the publisher’s website Routledge and on Amazon.
Below are some pictures of a 2008 Candlelight protest that turned violent, the Sewol Candlelight protest of 2014 as well as some videos of recent protests (November 2015) against president Park Geun-hye’s policies. Although these protests are violent, according to experts (mentioned in the first video) South Korea is in a transition to peaceful rallying.
This week a new publication of ours was published:
Ketelaar, P. E., Janssen, L., Vergeer, M., van Reijmersdal, E. A., Crutzen, R., & van ‘t Riet, J. (online first). The success of viral ads: Social and attitudinal predictors of consumer pass-on behavior on social network sites. Journal of Business Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.151
Below is the abstract
This study investigates which factors predict whether consumers will pass on viral advertising communications to their friends on a social network site. A conceptual framework consisting of three attitudinal and three social predictors of forwarding online content was tested using three real-life advertising campaigns that were spread simultaneously through the Dutch social network site Hyves. Results show that viral advertising pass-on behavior was significantly predicted by a positive attitude toward the brand, the advertisement, and toward viral advertising in general. For two of the three advertisements participants were more likely to forward the advertisement when the advertisement was received from a friend rather than a company. The present study is the first to investigate the predictors of actual pass-on behavior of viral advertisements in the context of a social network site, thereby significantly contributing to existing knowledge on the drivers of viral advertising success.
On Saturday November 24th 2012 history was written: The most viewed Youtube video up til then – Canadian Justin Bieber’s baby with 805.914.820 views – was surpassed by South Korean Psy’s Gangnam Style with 833.499.683 views.
It’s interesting to look at the viewer statistics of both videos and the way Youtube presents them. First of all, looking at the shape of Bieber’s viewer stats across time. At the early stages after the video was released we see a steep incline, which then levels off to a horizontal line. Looking at Psy’s graph we see that the amount of viewers is still on the increase. There are no signs yet that a maximum has been reached.
At first, after the new record was set, I expected there would be a competition between Bieber fans and the Psy fans to compete for the new target: 1.000.000.000 views!!! Then again, there is no visual sign of Bieber’s curve to rise again. This means that Bieber´s video increasingly lags behind Psy’s video, probably to the extent that he will never be able to overtake Psy. If Psy’s video will reach more than a billion views, it’ll be the record holder for a long time. Or will it? Bieber’s record only lasted less than three years, while Psy broke that record in record time. It took Psy only 134 days (which equals 6.220.147 views per day). Compare this to a measly average of 804.306 daily views for 1002 days for Bieber’s Baby. So, it’s waiting for the next video to break Psy’s record. It’ll come within the next five years. Mark my words!!! 🙂
Interestingly, Youtube doesn’t seem to be that interested in Justin Bieber’s video. First of all, Youtube is very slow in updating Bieber’s viewer stats. Whereas Psy’s stats are updated daily, Bieber’s stats on average they lag behind for about a week. Also Bieber’s vertical axis needs to be updated because the video surpassed the 800.000.000 mark clearly.
Psy’s Youtube stats
Justin Bieber’s Youtube stats
A further notable difference is the steep climb at the beginning of the number of viewer for the Bieber video. Compare this to the slow start of Psy’s video. A possible explanation is the date these video´s were posted: Bieber’s video was posted in Februari, one of the coldest months of the northern hemisphere, and Psy’s video was posted mid July, the hottest period for the northern hemisphere. That got me thinking that in the coldest months people stay indoors and have Youtube readily available, whereas in the summer people often are outdoors, or are on vacation, limiting their Youtube access. Cautionary note: this analysis is based on visual inspection of the graphs. It’d be better to use the actual longitudinal data. On July 28, 2012 Robbie Williams linked to Psy’s video on his website, probably aiding the quick dissemination through the Web, particularly the English speaking parts of the Web.
Justin Bieber’s Youtube interaction stats
Psy’s Youtube interaction stats
Below are the interaction stats directly compared between Bieber and Psy. It shows that, again, Psy has the most views, but Bieber has the most reactions. Psy has the most “Thumps Up”, whereas Bieber ahs the most “Thumbs Down”.
Viewer stats compared
As for the ratios between different stats we see that the audience of Biber’s video is more responsive than Psy’s audience. The rates for “Thumbs Up” “Thumbs Down” are quite similar to the earlier indicators because the number of views for Psy and Bieber are at a similar level. Still the quite small fraction of people reacting to these videos which only reaches a 1.1 percent shows that social media are not always that interactive. This percentage is probably somewhat inflated, and probably somewhat higher if multiple views by the same person would be taken account for. At the same time a single person can post multiple reponses to the video. This shows that using of-the-rack stats comes with limitations.
Rates between stats compared
Finishing this blog post on the 12th of December and checking the latest numbers on the Psy video, I wouldn’t be surprised when it reaches a billion views before then end of the year Only some 67 million views to go!
OK, to make this blog post complete here are both videos: